A recent and significant increase of migrants from the Global South to the Global North has caused serious issues such as smuggling and brain drain; additionally, illegal immigrants are included in the movement of people. As the migration problem has become a global issue, multi-layered migrationg overnance is resulting in the rapid emergence of inter-regionalism, regionalism, and bilateralism.
In Africa, regional efforts for facilitating the free movement of persons and improving border control have been progressing gradually in several decades. For instance, the Economic Community on West African States (ECOWAS) agreed on introducing common passports in 2000. These developments are the results of neoliberalism on the one hand and external pressure exerted - especially by Europe--on the other hand. Funds from the EU support technical assistance and capacity building of the ECOWAS Commission. Confronted with illegal migrants from Africa, the EU developed an inter-regional approach to contribute to the externalisation of migrant control beyond its regional framework. The Global Approach to Migration and Mobility (GAMM) since 2005 focuses on continuous dialogue and the conclusion of readmission agreements with non-EU countries.
Apparently, migration governance in Africa is strongly affected by European preferences. However, this essay argues that African countries are no longer merely rule takers and that they attempt to seek leverage from European countries both in inter-regional and bilateral approaches. Furthermore, it raises issues regarding governance of migration within and from Africa.
◆キーワード：migration, Regional Consultative Processes (RCPs), inter-regionalism