南アジア研究センター・セミナー Dr. Nafay Choudhury, 'Order in the Bazaar: Law, Norms, and Market Governance in Afghanistan’s Money Exchanger Market'
Dr. Nafay Choudhury（PhD King’s College London / Jeremy Haworth Research Fellow, University of Cambridge / Visiting Researcher, University of Tokyo）
'Order in the Bazaar: Law, Norms, and Market Governance in Afghanistan’s Money Exchanger Market'
This presentation examines the micro-dynamics of legal order in Afghanistan’s central money exchange bazaar, Sarai Shahzada, a market of some 400 stores in the heart of Kabul where millions of dollars exchange hands each day. The money bazaar is unique not only because of its ability to operate based on its own community norms, but particularly because the scale of its activities is so extensive that it permeates virtually every aspect of the country’s economy. The money exchangers who work in the bazaar are responsible for currency exchanging, money transfers (hawala), deposit safekeeping, trade financing, informal credit, holding funds in escrow, and controlling the money supply. Based on 14 months of ethnographic fieldwork in Kabul, Afghanistan (from 2017-2018), the presentation explores the interdependence of state and non-state legal systems in the production of legal order in the bazaar. For most of its history, the bazaar has been governed by informal legal norms. New state-building measures after 2001 led to increased efforts by the state to regulate the bazaar, causing money exchangers to initiate internal transformations to protect their autonomy. The research shows the centrality of the state in consolidating the bazaar legal system. Exchangers have cast their non-state legal system in the image of the state by formalizing new operating rules that have introduced a management structure and dispute resolution forum. New state licenses have also helped to safeguard the boundaries of the bazaar. This research contributes to private governance and legal pluralism scholarship by revealing that a private community, even in a fragile state, may be capable of maintaining an autonomous non-state legal system not in spite of, but rather by depending on, the state.
東京大学大学院「人間の安全保障」プログラム（HSP）/ 南アジア研究センター / 環インド洋地域研究プロジェクト / 持続的平和研究センター / 持続的開発研究センター、東京外国語大学南アジア研究センター共催