2019年度 第二回FINDAS若手研究者セミナー「南アジアの文学」の報告

掲載日 | 2019年12月18日
2019年11月30日 第二回FINDAS若手研究者セミナー

2019年度 第二回FINDAS若手研究者セミナー「南アジアの文学」の報告

 

2019年11月30日(土)13:00~15:00

東京外国語大学 本郷サテライト4階セミナー室

参加者数: 23名

 

報告者:

小松 久恵(追手門学院大学)

 

現代英国南アジア系表象の変容――エイジアンからムスリム、パーキスターニーへ

Dynamics of the Identities and Images in Contemporary British Writings: From Asian to Muslim and Pakistani

 

近年、英国においてムスリム移民を取り巻く環境はますます複雑なものとなっている。特に、移民2世、3世の若者たちは、イスラモフォビアが社会に広まる中、多くが職に就けないでいる。困難な状況は彼らを孤立させ、そして社会に対する不満を生み出す。イスラム原理主義への傾倒は、このような中から生まれる。こういった状況のもと、若いブリティッシュ・ムスリムたちによる自伝、メモワール、小説、映画など、多種多様な作品が発表されている。「ブリティッシュ・ムスリム」そして「ブリティッシュ・パーキスターニー」はこれまであまり知られていなかった、いわば周縁のコミュニティを理解するため、大きな関心の的となっている。

報告では主に2000年代に発表された英国南アジア系移民の若手作家による複数作品を取り上げ、映像を交えて紹介した。彼ら自身の作品に現れる自己表象、そして英国メディアに現れる他者としての表象が、どのようなラベルのもとで注目をあび、そしてその注目がどのように移り変わっていったのかを提示した。加えて近年大きな話題となったパキスタン系ギャングによる白人少女への性虐待事件を紹介し、被害者たちによる手記の分析、考察を行った。

In the past several years the situation of Muslim immigrants seems to become increasingly complicated in the British society. In particular, second or third generation Muslim youths are burdened with difficulties such as high unemployment rate and anti-Muslim backlash or so called Islamophobia. These difficulties can make them to feel isolated and then frustrated at society. Moreover, we can find some of them are urged to sympathize with the radical thoughts. In this situation, theme of Muslim writing itself has recently become newsworthy and we can see the proliferation of autobiographical memoirs, novels and movies by young British writers of Muslim heritage. Both the British Muslim and the British Pakistani have become an object of great interest to know the community that is little-known and marginalized.

I investigated those literary works of several authors of South Asian descent who are second or third generation migrants living in contemporary Britain. In addition to that, I analyzed the memoirs of the survivors of the sexual exploitation who represent British Pakistani men as their perpetrators. It examined the dynamics of their identities and images in the modern British society.

2019年度 第五回FINDAS共催研究会「バングラデシュで考える開発NGOと現地の人々」の報告

掲載日 | 
2019年11月27日 第五回FINDAS共催研究会

2019年度 第五回FINDAS共催研究会「バングラデシュで考える開発NGOと現地の人々」の報告

 

2019年11月27日(水)14:30~18:00

東京外国語大学 本郷サテライト8階会議室

参加者数: 15名

 

報告1:

山田 翔太(立命館大学大学院)

 

バングラデシュ沿岸部農村における飲料水としての雨水利用――NGOの活動と村民の受動的姿勢

Rainwater Harvesting as Drinking Water in Coastal Bangladesh: Activity of NGOs and Passive Behaviour of Villagers

 

本発表では、塩害による飲料水問題が深刻なバングラデシュ沿岸部農村(サツキラ県、シャムナゴール郡、ムンシゴンジ・ユニオンのJ村内に位置するP集落)で、雨水を貯水するタンク(以下、タンク)が普及しない理由と、タンクが普及するための要因を解明するために行った発表者の現地調査の結果を報告した。

まず、発表者から村民が開発援助により建設・設置された給水施設に対して、村民がその安全性に関して信頼を置くとともに、タンクが開発援助機関から提供されることを期待しているため、タンクを入手するという点では受動的な姿勢を示すことを指摘した。また、NGOが事業化しタンクの販売を行うことで、経済的に貧困でありタンクを購入することができない貧困層がその活動の対象となっていない可能性を指摘した。そして、タンクを普及させるためには開発援助機関が村民のタンクの入手に関する受動的な姿勢を能動的な姿勢に導くような対策が求められるとともに、貧困層が開発事業の対象から排除されることを防止する必要があることを指摘した。対策の具体案としては、タンクの無償リース(一定期間の使用後に購入か返却かを村民が決定)や最貧困層に対する無償提供が挙げられた。

質疑では、本発表で調査を行ったサツキラ県が貧困度の高い地域であるために、調査結果をどの程度一般化することが可能かという点、対策として提示した無償リース・無償提供は反って援助に対する依存を高めてしまうのではないか、また無償提供するのであればその対象をどのように選定するのかといった点、所得のみがタンクの入手に関する決定要因なのかという点、などが挙げられた。

In this presentation, I analysed and reported the results of a field survey to reveal the reasons why villagers do not have rainwater harvesting tanks (hereinafter: RWHTs) and factors to distribute RWHTs in the coastal village of Bangladesh (P hamlet, J village, Munshiganj Union, Shyamnagar Upazila, Satkhira District).

Firstly, it was pointed out that villagers remain passive to obtain RWHTs because they have trust in the quality of water from the facilities that have constructed by development agencies and await support from development agencies to be distributed RWHTs. Moreover, it was pointed out that poor villagers may not be covered by the activities of NGOs because they have become commercialization recently. In this situation, this study proposed that development agencies should take notice of the villagers’ passive attitude and adapt their strategies with an eye toward changing them. Also, it is required to give RWHTs freely for extreme poor.

In the Q&A session, the questions I got were, for example, how I can generalize my cases because Satkhira District is a place of high poverty rate, whether the proposal to solve this problem as giving RWHTs feely strengthens the mindset of aid dependency of villagers or not, and how development agencies decide the target to distribute RWHTs freely.

 

報告2:

鈴木 亜望(神戸大学大学院)

 

女性たちの仕事と支援の利用―ダカにおける手工芸品生産を事例として

Women’s work and using help: Case study of handicrafts production in Dhaka

 

バングラデシュの首都ダカにあるシルクスカーフ生産工房を対象に、支援と関わりながら仕事が創造、維持される工房における、女性たちの支援と仕事に対する視座に関して議論した。その際に、ベンガル語で助けることを意味するサハッジョ(sāhāja’)と、仕事を意味するカジ(kāj)という二つのローカルタームに着目し、工房のオーナー、従業員といった女性たちが行うサハッジョとカジをめぐる重層的な解釈と実践に関して報告した。具体的には、オーナー女性が中心となり、外国人支援者たちが行う資金援助、技術指導、販売場所の提供などをサハッジョと呼び好ましいものと捉え、積極的に利用しようとしていた。このことから、被支援者としての従属的な関係だけではないサハッジョの能動的な側面を提示した。さらに、サハッジョによって維持される工房は、女性たちに賃金労働やグローバル市場との接触をもたらした。それに対して従業員の女性たちが社会規範や家族と交渉をしながら望ましいカジを実践し、またふさわしいカジの場を作り出そうとしていることを明らかにした。

質疑応答では、様々な分野のインドおよびバングラデシュ研究者から的確な指摘があり、特にサハッジョに関して議論を深めることができた。サハッジョのベンガルにおける伝統的あるいは日常的な用法とヘルプと置き換え可能な英語の用法および工房の人々が使う用法それぞれの差異に関する意見、支援を戦略的に利用するオーナー女性の特質、開発援助における手工芸品生産の位置付け等に関して貴重な意見が上がり、有意義な議論の時間となった。

 

This presentation discussed the meaning and practice of help and work from women’s point of view who work at a silk scarf handicraft studio in Dhaka, a capital city of Bangladesh. It focuses on two local terms sāhāja’ and kāj which means help and work respectively in Bangla language. Women in the studio which its work is made and maintained by foreign and domestic help organizations show multilayered interpretations and practices of sāhāja’ and kāj. Women in the studio, especially the manager think various kinds of sāhāja’ from foreigners positively and use it proactively. It’s one aspect of help that aid recipients are not only passive but also active as using help. These sāhāja’ have had women contact to the global market and engage in paid work. In this new economic situation, which may cause contradictions with traditional norms, employee women look for suitable kāj negotiating families, social norms and other women, and to make comfort workplace for them.

At the question and answer session, researchers of India and Bangladesh raised interesting comments especially regarding sāhāja’, for instance, the difference of meaning of sāhāja’/help between Bengali peasants using, English meaning and women in the studio using. They also discussed that Manager woman’s character to maintain the studio and the possibility of handicrafts as a developing project. These were very helpful and had an interesting discussion.

 

2019年度 第一回FINDAS若手研究者セミナー「南アジアの宗教コミュニティと生活世界――ジェンダーの観点から」の報告 

掲載日 | 2019年11月18日

2019年10月26日 FINDAS若手研究者セミナー 報告1

2019年10月26日 FINDAS若手研究者セミナー 報告2

2019年10月26日(土)13:00~16:30

東京外国語大学 本郷サテライト4階セミナー室

参加者数: 19名

 

報告1:

鶴田 星子(京都大学大学院博士課程)

 

信仰の継承と生き方の選択――インドの異宗教間夫婦とその「次の世代」の事例から

Succession of Faith and the Choices of the Way of Life: From the Cases of Inter-religious Couples and Their “Next Generations” in India

 

本発表では、インドの異宗教間結婚における宗教実践や生活実践、信仰の世代間継承の問題について、社会活動家や大学教員、ジャーナリストなどの4組の夫婦と、3人の「次の世代」の人々の具体的なライフストーリーを軸に分析、報告した。

まず、発表者のインフォーマントたちの多くはリベラルな思想を持つ人々であるため、夫婦どちらも改宗せずに結婚しているという特徴がある。そのため彼らは、片方の信仰に捉われず「インド文化」を再解釈し、断絶した社会との関係を回復・維持しようとしていることを指摘した。さらに、両家の信仰や規範の差異の調整を行い、相互理解の努力をしていること、そしてどちらかの宗教に偏らない次の世代への教育を行っている実態を検討した。そして、次の世代もまた複数宗教を実践をしたり、もしくは無宗教を選んだりし、断絶した家族・親族関係の再構築の役割を担っていることを明らかにした。

質疑では、本発表の事例がどの程度インド全般の異宗教間結婚の特徴に当てはまるのかについてや、結婚する異宗教間の組み合わせ、具体的な異宗教間結婚の数値データの有無、「ラヴ・ジハード」以外の政治問題の有無についてなどの質問を受けた。

 

In this presentation, I analyzed and reported problems of religious practice, life practice and succession of faith of inter-religious marriage based on the concrete life stories of 4 couples who are social activists, professors, and journalists, and 3 next generations of them.

Firstly, many of my informants have liberal thoughts and neither of them have converted. Therefore, they don’t stick to one faith but reinterpret “Indian culture” and aimed to recover and maintain the relationships with their society. In addition, they aimed to adjust the gap of faith and norms of both families and understand each other and taught their next generation about their faith without leaning towards one side religion. Moreover, the next generations practice multiple religions or don’t practice any religion as well. That attitudes seems to reconstruct family/relative relationships that once broke off.

In the Q&A session, the questions I got were, for example, how I can generalize my cases among inter-religious marriages all over India, which combinations of inter-religious marriages are the most popular one, whether there is a concrete data of the number of inter-religious marriages or not, whether there are other political issues except “Love Jihad” or not and so on.

 

 

報告2:

Megha Wadhwa(上智大学比較文化研究所特別研究員)

 

Finding their Niche in Japan: Inspiring Stories of Indian Migrant Women

 

As per official statistics, in 2018 only 30% (approximately) of the total Indian population in Japan were females, and this percentage has not changed significantly for the past several years. The majority of the Indian women move to Japan as a ’trailing spouse’.  The men are given the opportunity of brighter career prospects, as a result of which they decide to move to Japan. In the case of the majority of women, it happens because either they are married to a man who is being given the opportunity to move, or will marry a man who is already residing in Japan. There is a lack of decision-making for migrating to Japan in the case of the majority of Indian migrant women. In this presentation, I addressed the lives of married migrant women of Indian origin in Tokyo who cope with a diversity of situations, while at the same time maintaining and negotiating with their Indian identities. It also focused on the advantages and differences of life in Tokyo in comparison to life in India. Despite such challenges, most women find ways to survive in their new environment. Owing to their having re-located to a wholly new and dissimilar setting not just in terms of language and culture but also regarding food and housing, they have had no choice but to accept their share of struggles, which balance out the advantages they enjoy of living in a safe environment. While most find Japan convenient, they miss the earlier comforts they had known, and while they appreciate the nation’s peaceful ambience, it also makes them feel lonely. To overcome such isolation they put in utmost efforts to keep busy in some way or other, either by working or fulfilling roles as homemakers. They discover ways to become self-dependent and earn some income to contribute to their household, to their children’s education, or in some cases, even to secretly support their parents back home.

In the Q&A session, there were various interesting questions asked by the audience. Some of them were as follows: Why do these women feel lonely in Japan? What is the biggest challenge for them in Japan? And if there are class or caste issues amongst the community in Japan?

2019年度 FINDAS×社会連携「南アジアで磨く、国連キャリアーーロヒンギャ避難民支援の現場から」の報告

掲載日 | 

2019年10月24日 FINDAS社会連携

2019年10月24日(木)18:00~19:30
東京外国語大学 府中キャンパス 研究講義棟 101教室

参加者数: 270名

講演者: 

東山慎太郎(Programme Support Officer, International Organization for Migration (IOM))

「ロヒンギャ避難民への人道支援と国連でのキャリア構築」

【Report】 2019 FINDAS Joint International Workshop “Dalits in India: Historical Reflections and Challenges”

掲載日 | 2019年10月17日
Workshop 20190921
Speakers: Mr. Rahul Singh and Prof. Shahana Bhattacharya

【Report】

2019 FINDAS Joint International Workshop with Scientific Research Project (Tomotsune, Tsutomu)

“Dalits in India: Historical Reflections and Challenges”

 

Date/Time: Sat 21 September 2019. 14:00-17:00

Venue: Medium Conference Room on 2nd floor, Administration Building, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies (TUFS)

Language: English

Number of Participants: 15

 

◆Speaker 1:

 Rahul Singh 

(National Program Coordinator, National Dalit Movement For Justice, NDMJ-NCDHR)

“Status of Dalits in Contemporary India: Issues and Challenges”

 

Despite constitutional safeguards and special legislation for the protection of the country’s 201 million ‘scheduled castes’ (the official term for Hindu, Sikh and Buddhist Dalits), violations of their fundamental human rights continue on a massive scale in India. Caste-based discrimination takes multiple forms based on the underlying notions of purity and pollution. Despite safeguards, multiple forms of caste discrimination take place which includes social and economic exclusion, denial and restrictions of access to public and private services and employment, and traditionally prescribed occupations of the most demeaning and hazardous kind. Dalit’s are routinely denied access to water, schools, land, markets and employment. Key issues include access to justice, rising violence (Lynching’s and Mass Attacks), multiple discrimination against Dalit women, discrimination in education, judicial impunity and access to basic services including humanitarian aid, social and economic rights, shrinking space for civil society organizations and violence against Dalit human rights defenders. On the other hand, impunity within the Criminal Justice Administrative System is seen through the enforcement of law and response of machinery. There is ample evidence of non-registration of cases under appropriate sections of the key legislation meant to protect Dalit’s from violence i.e, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act 1989 and Rules 1995. There are a number of ways in which registration of an FIR is avoided – discouraging to register FIR, neglect, encouraging compromise, direct threatening, blaming the victim and refusal to register FIR, calling the accused to create an intimidating environment in the police station and so on. The trend in the disposal of cases in the judiciary is also very low and recently the Supreme Court of India in 2018 came out with a Judgment diluting the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act 1989 overlooking the historical context in which the Act was formulated. Thus, the enforcement of the PoA Act and Rules, the functioning of judicial and administrative mechanisms remain critical in the Indian context.  In this background, there is a need to develop a common approach across the Asia region to address caste and DWD based discrimination and violence as the same do exist in Asian countries including Japan where Burkumin community face discrimination. At the same time to ensure country-specific realities and strategies are foregrounded.

 

 

◆Speaker 2:

Shahana Bhattacharya 

(Associate Professor, Kirori Mal College, University of Delhi)

 

 “Caste, Class and Stigmatised Work in Leather Production in India: Some Historical Reflections”

 

The presentation on “Caste, Class and Stigmatised Work: Reflections from a historical study of Technical Education in Leather Production in India” examined how the incorporation of hides, skins and leather production in India into the colonial economy led to a massive expansion and complete transformation of organisation of production from the late 19th century onwards, with significant implications for numerous outcaste workers, predominantly drawn as labour for leather tanning. Leather production came to be linked to considerable profits, while the work remained associated with ‘traditional’ notions of stigma and low caste and social status. The presentation focused on how state-organised technical education and modern skilling initiatives in the 20th century, introduced at least partly to counter these associations, went on to substantially reaffirm these caste based notions, structures and hierarchies.  

 

◆Commentators

Toshie Awaya (Professor, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies)

Maya Suzuki (Research Associate, Center for South Asian Studies, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies)

 

◆Chair

Tsutomu Tomotsune (Professor, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies)